How to install Ubuntu 12.04

Many customers are surprised at the cost of a Windows licence, and ask whether there’s a cheaper alternative. My answer is yes, there is, and it’s perfectly usable.

Linux is often thought of as a “techy” operating system which can only really be used by computer experts. This isn’t true, although it can be a little harder to get used to than the ubiquitous Windows operating systems. As long as you’re prepared to hunt a little bit further for instructions on how to do things, and put up with the fact you’re going to have to experiment, and learn a different way to do things, many Linux operating systems can give you everything that Windows can. Beware though, when you ask for help online you often don’t get simple to follow instructions as you do with Windows problems, but much more technical responses that assume a much higher degree of knowledge on your part. The learning curve can be steep if you want to do more than the basics.

NB – At this point I should head off comments about how Macs are the real alternative to Windows from Apple fans. This article is in response to the question of whether there’s a cheaper alternative to Windows, not a better one.

Of all the Linux OS alternatives out there, perhaps the most popular is Ubuntu. At the time of writing, the latest version of the Desktop version is 12.04. So how do we go about installing it?

Next page – Before we get started…

Simple computer performance tips

There are many things that can be done to make an old laptop, or even a brand new machine, run that little bit faster. Some of them are complicated or risky, and best left to experts who can perform complete backups before attempting them. However others are simple enough for anyone to do for themselves.

Here are a few things that you can try to keep your PC clutter-free and working smoothly.

Don’t install things that come free unless you really want to.

Nowadays, many software providers (especially free software) make a bit of money on the side by bundling in other company’s applications with theirs in the hope that people will automatically install them. This is particularly true of browser toolbars.

A browser toolbar will add a line towards the top of your web browser (Internet Explorer, Firefox, Chrome etc.) to give you “added functionality” like search boxes, and buttons to do “useful” things. These toolbars invariably use up system resources and slow down your machine.

Always try to avoid installing things you don’t really need.

Examples of such apps are: Google, Norton and Yahoo Toolbars.

Remove installed programs that you don’t use.

In Control Panel, go to Add or Remove Applications (XP) or Programs and Features (Vista, 7). This will show you a list of installed applications. If there are things in this list you know you don’t use or need, click on them and then click Uninstall.

On XP, DO NOT install Windows Search.

Windows Search is offered as an update to Windows XP. This is meant to give you similar functionality to the search features that are built into Vista and 7 that were not originally available in XP. The attempt to bolt this functionality on top works less well, to say the least. I have seen XP machines slowed to a crawl simply by installing this update, and as soon as the update is removed the machine jumps back into life!

If you have already installed it, remove it.

Use Antivirus that won’t slow down your machine, and only use one product.

Some Antivirus and computer security software can significantly slow down your machine as it runs scans, or simply sits there monitoring your activity. I have investigated very slow machines in the past and found the single biggest contributing factor to be the Antivirus.

Installations of Norton, AVG, McAfee, BitDefender and Kaspersky have all been found to be a significant element in bringing older PCs to their knees. (Although I have also seen installations of all of these working perfectly well, so it does depend on individual circumstances.) Norton Internet Security has improved significantly in recent versions, but I still wouldn’t recommend it over alternatives.

Free Antivirus is sufficient if you are technically minded. I have used Microsoft Security Essentials on all my machines until recently, and never had a problem. This can be downloaded from here.

If you want more piece of mind then paid for software can be well worth the expense. Having discovered ESET security products, I have been so impressed that I have been exclusively recommending them for a while now, started using them myself and have recently become an Authorised Reseller. It happened in that order too, honestly! My weapon of choice is ESET Smart Security 5, and details can be found here. Antivirus without the extras (firewall, internet security etc), and business-level security software is also available. A review can be found here. If you’re thinking of buying  and you’re in my vicinity, contact me (contact details available at and I’ll see what can be done on price. I normally only supply to people local to me as it’s important for me to be able to provide a decent level of support.

Some people think that more is always better, but this isn’t true of computer security. If you install more than one Antivirus product at once, they clash with each other when it comes to accessing files, and can lock up completely. Always only use one Antivirus product at a time, and if you are replacing one with another, make sure that the one you’re replacing has been thoroughly removed. The provided uninstaller is not always sufficient to remove all traces of the application. Norton provide a downloadable uninstaller, the Norton Removal Tool 2012, so you can be sure you’ve completely removed their products, and this can be found here.

There is almost always more that can be done to improve the performance of a machine, but once the simple remedies have been tried, it’s a matter of knowing when to pay for an expert to improve things, and when to cut your losses and buy a new shiny toy. I’d like to think that people wouldn’t throw away a computer that still has life in it though, so we’re here to help!

I’ll try to add to this list when I can, but as always, suggestions are welcome.

All instructions are followed at the user’s risk, and HolmPC takes no responsibility for any loss or damage caused as a result. Always back up your data as thoroughly as possible before attempting to follow any instructions found on the Internet, and if in doubt, take the computer to an expert. If you feel there is any inaccuracy or confusion in this article, please let me know and I’ll do my best to put it right.

Windows keyboard shortcuts

Using the keyboard to accomplish simple tasks such as opening, closing and switching between windows, copying and pasting is quicker and easier than using the mouse and navigating your way through menus to get to what you want.

Computer Repair Dorking

Figure 1 – The Windows key is used for many keyboard shortcuts.

There are many shortcuts available, and you can also create your own for tasks you carry out particularly often.

These are the shortcuts I find most useful. Most are available in all versions of Windows.

The Windows key is the key to the left of Alt, which is just to the left of the spacebar, with a symbol on it similar to a “flying” window, as shown in Figure 1. Older keyboards will have a slightly different symbol, but it’s similar. It is referred to in this article as WinKey.

Desired action Keyboard shortcut
Open Windows Explorer WinKey + E
Close all Windows to show Desktop WinKey+ D
Switch between open windows Alt + Tab
Open the Run window WinKey+ R
Open the Start menu WinKey on its own
Open search window WinKey + W
Copy selected text or object Ctrl + C
Cut selected text or object Ctrl + X
Paste selected text or object Ctrl + V
Undo Ctrl + Z
Close the current window Alt + F4
Set selected text as Bold Ctrl + B
Set selected text as Italic Ctrl + I
Underline selected text Ctrl + U
Lock the computer WinKey + L
Refresh the current window F5

There are many other keyboard shortcuts available, but these are the ones I would consider to be the ones that will make the most difference to your productivity using Windows. Any others that you find useful?


Here are some quick and simple tips on how to do basic tasks and find information in Windows.  Ideas for new ones welcome!

Q – How do I find out what version of Windows I am using?

A – Click Start and the right-click on My Computer (XP) or Computer (Vista and 7). The windows or dialog that comes up will tell you which version of Windows you are using, and the level of Service Pack, if relevant.

Q – How do I stop a CD from running when I put it in the CD drive?

A – To stop it each time, hold the shift key down when closing the CD tray. To make the change permanent in Windows 7, open Control Panel, choose to view by Small Icons, and click AutoPlay. Uncheck the box that says Use AutoPlay for all media and devices.

How to repair a broken user profile in Windows XP (and in Vista or 7 with a few changes!)

I was recently called by a client who thought her computer had lost all of her pictures, email and contacts, She had logged in and was presented with an unfamiliar desktop, without her normal background and very few files and shortcuts visible.

This can be quite scary, as it appears that your data has disappeared, and the first thought is that you won’t be able to get it back.

I was able to tell this lady that it was probable that her user profile had been broken in some way, and that she needn’t worry, we just needed to fix the profile. This turned out to be correct, and all her data was restored in a little over two hours (with most of that time being spent waiting while her files were copied to a new location rather than doing anything complicated).

The steps required to do this are available in many places on the Internet, but I thought I’d reproduce them here, and explain things as simply as possible as I go along.

What is actually happening?

Windows tries to load your user environment, but for some reason fails, so it logs you into a temporary user instead, as if that might be useful. Instead, it confuses and worries you.

Think of the environment you see when you log into Windows as the index page of a book. What it shows you is not the actual content, just a list to tell you what’s available and where it is. What’s happening when your profile gets broken (I won’t go into the reasons why it might happen here) is like the index page being torn out, and a blank one being put in it’s place. Your information is still in the book, but you just don’t know where it is. You see exactly what you would see if you created a new user, and then logged in as that user rather than your normal one.

How do I fix it?

(Button text, menu items and other text that will appear on screen exactly as written are denoted in bold.)

The way round this is to create a new user profile and copy all of your data to it. When you log in with this new user, all your data will be visible to you again. There may be one or two things to tidy up after this, but we’ll get to that.

So, enough bad analogies, what steps do I need to follow?

NB – If you have imaging software such as Acronis True Image Home, it’s always a good idea to take an image before you start to try any sort of recovery. If you don’t, and you still want to try to get things back rather than bringing it to an expert, be aware that bad things CAN happen.

Before we start to get your data back, some things need to be prepared. You will need two administrator accounts other than the one you’re trying to repair. One will be the new user you’re going to be using from now on, and the other is just temporary. We’ll assume you don’t have suitable accounts already, and work from scratch.

Note: For this process to work, you need to have at least as much space free on your hard drive as is used by your profile. If you don’t, then when the steps say to click Copy, you instead need to click Cut. This is a slightly more risky procedure.

  • Click Start in the bottom right hand corner of the screen and then click on Control Panel;
  • Click on User Accounts;
  • Choose Create a new account;
  • Type a name for the account. This will be the account you use from now on, so choose something relevant to you, but not the same as the old account we’re trying to fix. For the purpose of this guide I’ll call mine NewUser;
  • Click Next, and on the next screen make sure Computer Administrator is selected;
  • Click Create Account.
User Accounts Window - HolmPC Computer Repair and Support Dorking

Figure 1 – User Accounts Window

Repeat the steps above to create another administrator account, but call this one TempUser.

At this point you should see your accounts at the bottom of the window as in the picture to the left, Figure 1. I’d expect you to see your broken one, your two new ones, and “Guest” (plus any for other users who use the computer).

Now we need to copy your files across to the new user, so you need to log out. Click the Start button and then click Log Off, and click Log Off again.

You’ll be taken back to the log in screen which will list the new users you just created.

The folder that we want to copy files to will not be created until you’ve logged in as NewUser, so do that now, and then log off again. Now log in as TempUser. You shouldn’t need a password as we didn’t set one up.

Next we need to copy your files across.

  • Open Windows Explorer. The easiest way to do this is click Start and then click My Computer;
  • On the Tools menu, click Folder Options, and then go to the View tab.
Folder Options Dialog - HolmPC Computer Repair and Support Dorking

Figure 2 – Folder Options Dialog

We need to make sure that all your files are copied across, including the hidden and operating system ones. The dialog you’re looking at should look like Figure 2.

  • Make sure there isn’t a tick next to Hide protected operating system files (you’ll probably have to scroll down in the window to see this). If there is a tick in there click it to clear the box. A warning will come up, and you need to click Yes on it;
  • Make sure that Show hidden files and folders has the green dot in the circle next to it. If it doesn’t, click the circle so the green dot appears in it, and disappears from Do not show hidden files and folders;
  • Click OK to close the Folder Options dialog;
  • Click the Folders button in the bar near the top of the Windows Explorer window. This will cause a folder tree to appear in the left side of the window;
  • Under My Computer, click the plus sign to the left of the drive that says (C:) next to it. This will normally be called “Local Disk”;
  • Click the + next to Documents and Settings . This will open up a list of folders under Documents and Settings which will include folders with the names of your users.

This is the only bit that might be a bit tricky. We want to select all except a few of the files in this folder and copy them across to the new user.

User Files Selected - HolmPC Computer Support and Repair Dorking

Figure 3 – Correct User Files Selected

  • Scroll down to the bottom of the right hand pane in Windows Explorer. You should see three files there with names that start “ntuser”;
  • On the Edit menu, click Select All. This will highlight all the files and folders on the right hand pane;
  • While holding down the Ctrl key on the keyboard, click each of these three “ntuser” files. They should become deselected, while all the other files remain selected, as in Figure 3;
  • On the Edit menu, click Copy  (You can also copy by pressing the Ctrl and C keys on the keyboard together);
  • Back in the folder list on the left, click on the name of the new user you created, in my case NewUser;
  • On the Edit menu, click Paste (You can also paste by pressing Ctrl and V together on the keyboard).

This will paste all the files and folders from your broken profile into the new one. If you are asked during this process if you want to overwrite existing files or folders, always say Yes or Yes To All. This copy may take some time, depending on the size and number of files you have stored.

When the copy has finished, you should log off and then log back on as your new user, and all your files and setting should be back!

Depending on what went wrong with your profile in the first place, some files may have been corrupted, and this process will not get them back. This was the case with my client, and so i had to do the following after restoring the profile…

  • Set the desktop background to be the picture that was previously being used (Right click on your photo of choice and click Set as Desktop Background);
  • Restore email settings and address book. The instructions to do this depend on which mail client is being used, so are not included in this article. Requests for instructions for particular mail clients could lead to a posting on the subject…

When you are sure you have all your files back and are happy that you don’t need to do any more repair work, you can delete the TempUser and the old broken user accounts by going into Control Panel and then User Accounts. You have the option of also removing the files associated with these users when you do this, and this will recover the disk space used by the process.

There are other ways to get your profile back, such as using System Restore, but this is the best in my opinion. The root cause might still remain in the Restore Point you revert to, and the problem may come back.

All instructions are followed at the user’s risk, and HolmPC takes no responsibility for any loss or damage caused as a result. Always back up your data as thoroughly as possible before attempting to follow any instructions found on the Internet, and if in doubt, take the computer to an expert. If you feel there is any inaccuracy or confusion in this article, please let me know and I’ll do my best to put it right.